Fungal Infections
Fungal Infections
Fungal infection is among the skin diseases we frequently encounter....
What is a Fungal Infection?
Fungal infection is among the skin diseases we frequently encounter. Fungal species, which are infectious diseases, can affect many areas such as skin, nails, scalp, mouth and genital area. Fungal infection, which is initially in a certain area, can spread around it or to other areas. Fungus is an infectious disease. It can spread to another area or environment in the same person, or it can be transmitted to someone else through the use of common items or close contact. We see mushroom species that like to multiply in the heat more frequently, especially in the summer months.
What Causes Fungal Infection?
General hygiene rules are very important in preventing fungal diseases. It can be transmitted through direct contact or use of common items. Contamination can occur from humans, animals or soil. Excessive humidity, heat, decreased immunity, tight and tight clothing, and not paying attention to hygiene make it easier for fungal infections to occur. Particularly in the summer months, using shared pools, sharing bathroom slippers, and keeping the skin wet and damp for a long time create grounds for fungus formation.
Common Fungal Infections
Tinea pedis (Foot Fungus)
It is a fungal infection often seen between the toes. It is more common in hot and humid environments, in people who stay in shoes for a long time, and in men. It usually appears as a maceration (slight watering) and crack (fissure) between the toes. We can see it clinically in four different forms.
Intertriginous type:
It is the fungal form seen between the fingers. It is most common between the third and fourth fingers and can be seen between all fingers. It appears as a white, velvety, foul-smelling skin lesion that is sometimes accompanied by peeling. It is the most common form of foot fungus.
Skuamöz hiperkeratotik tip (makosen tip) tinea pedis
It is a type of foot fungus that causes a scaly (dandruff) and hyperkeratotic (thickened) skin rash on the edge of the foot and sole. Having the same nail attitude can sometimes be a clue. It is more common in the entire foot, and systemic treatment is usually planned. It can sometimes be perceived as dryness or eczema in the foot. For a definitive diagnosis, it is necessary to perform a microscopic examination and take a sample.
Dizydrosiform type tinea pedis
It is a foot fungus that is associated with heat sweating, especially in people who are prone to excessive sweating. Unlike typical fungal rash, it appears as vesicles (small water-filled blisters) on the arch of the foot and on the fingers. It is often accompanied by severe itching. It spreads by scratching. The water-filled blisters and vesicles dry out and are replaced by crusting.
Erythematous squamous type tinea pedis
It presents with a round, dandruff-like rash on the back of the foot.

Tinea cruris (ingiunalis) - groin fungus
Pubic fungus; It is a superficial fungal infection that can affect the perianal region, perineum, pubis and sometimes the buttocks. In the groin area, it is usually seen as a rash with symmetrical redness, dandruff, even dandruff at the edges, sometimes with water-filled blisters (vesicles), and is often accompanied by itching. It is more common in men than in women. It is more common in people living in hot climates, overweight people, diabetic patients, and those who do not pay attention to hygiene. Inguinal fungus can be transmitted between partners through sexual intercourse, and partner treatment is also required.

Onychomycosis - Nail Fungus
Fungal infections affecting the nail are called 'onychomycosis'. It may manifest itself as nail thickening, color change and breakage. It is usually asymptomatic and has no accompanying complaints other than shape change. The presence of conditions such as diabetes, immunosuppression, wet feet for a long time, and accompanying foot fungus facilitates the formation of nail fungus. Topical (applying) or systemic (oral) treatment is administered according to the degree of nail involvement. However, nail fungus treatment takes a long time. A treatment period of at least 2-3 months is required. Treatment of fungus in toenails takes longer than in fingernails.
Tinea versicolor (pitriasis versicolor)
Superficial fungal infection, also called tinea versicolor or pityriasis versicolor, is the world's most common skin fungal infection. When the fungus called Malessezia Furfur, which is normally found in our skin flora, finds a suitable environment, it occurs as a fungal infection on the skin. It usually appears as a brown, sometimes red, very fine dandruff rash on the body, especially in cases such as sweating, summer months, staying damp after swimming in the pool, not paying attention to hygiene, and immunosuppression. It may spread over time. It can be seen equally in both genders starting from adolescence. It is usually asymptomatic, there are no complaints. Diagnosis is made by clinical findings and microscopic examination of the scraping sample. Topical or systemic agents can be used in treatment.
Tinea corporis (Stem fungus)
It is a superficial fungal infection of the skin covering the trunk and extremities (arms and legs). Generally, contamination occurs from animals and soil. Transmission can also occur from person to person through close contact. The rash, which usually starts as a small rash, expands and forms a ring-shaped skin lesion with more squamous (dandruff) surrounding it. It may be accompanied by itching. The diagnosis is made clinically and as a result of microscopic examination with KOH (potassium hydroxide). Treatment is administered topically or systemically depending on the prevalence of the infection.
Tinea capitis (scalp fungus)
It is a fungal infection seen on the scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes. It is generally seen more frequently in childhood, especially in those living in rural areas, due to animal contact. It is observed with erythematous (redness), scaly (dandruff) rashes on the scalp, hair loss and itching. While the superficial form does not cause permanent hair loss, the deep fungal form may cause scarring and permanent hair loss on the scalp. Clinical, microscopic examination with KOH (potassium hydroxide) and culture are used in diagnosis. Systemic antifungals are used in the treatment of tinea capitis.
What happens if the fungus is not treated?
If fungal infections of the skin are not treated, they like to spread around themselves and then to another skin area in the body. It can spread much faster, especially if there is humidity, heat, scratching, or immunosuppression. Apart from spreading, it can also infect other people. When fungal infections become chronic or very widespread, treatment becomes more difficult. Therefore, fungal infections should be treated at the earliest possible stage and general precautions should be taken.
Does Fungal Infection Go Away on Its Own?
If the person's immunity is strong and the fungal infection is limited, the fungal infection can go away on its own if general hygiene measures are taken into consideration. General measures such as keeping the infected area dry, avoiding excessive heat and humidity, complying with hygiene rules, and not using common items are very effective in curing and reoccurring the disease.
How to Treat Fungal Infection?
Initial treatment for all fungal infections includes general precautions and hygiene rules. Whenever possible, the area with fungal infection should be kept dry and clean, excessive sweating and heat should be avoided, cotton and loose clothing should be preferred, common items should be kept in the pool, etc. Its use should be avoided, and the infected should not be spread around by trauma such as scratching or scrubbing. Medical treatment of fungal infection varies depending on the size of the affected area, the person's age, immune status and the type of fungus. In the medical treatment of fungal infection, medications such as cream, ointment, spray syrup and tablet are used. Depending on the condition of the infection, your doctor organizes the appropriate treatment for you.
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